Brood Box - where the brood (the eggs, larva and young bees) are raised. Normally the bottom most box.
Checkerboarding - Interspersing empty brood comb (or even foundation) into the brood area. This is done to give the queen more room to raise brood and hopefully not swarm.
Entrance Reducer - Just a wooden stick made to fit in the entrance and make the entrance smaller. This will help keep in heat and allow the bees to guard the entrance better against bees that do not belong to the hive (robber bees).
Orientation Flight - The first trip out of the hive by young bees. They try to understand their location so they can make it back home. Also occurs when the hive is moved.
Super - meaning "above", is actually any box above the brood box (or boxes). Normally the location of honey!
Syrup Feeder - Essentialy an upside down canning jar with pin holes punched in the lid. This is placed in the hive to feed the bees as needed.